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Decision Making Techniques and Tools in Management

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Decision-making techniques and tools fall into three main categories: random; Insight-based; Or analytical. Some strategies combine intuitive and analytical elements to take advantage of our cognitive abilities, though we have no complete understanding of how our mind works. This article will be discussing decision-making techniques and tools in depth.

decision making techniques and tools

Decision-making techniques and tools

At Decision Innovation, we focus on analytics techniques that allow us to improve our decision-making skills while taking advantage of expert insights. Revealing an expert’s thought process allows us to learn from innate skills and/or years of experience with advanced patterns and insights.

Different decision-making techniques can provide unique advantages for specific decisions

The following decision-making methods, techniques, and tools can be used to improve your decision-making skills.

Simple decision matrix

Decision Analysis of Multiple Criteria (Same or Related Strategy: Grid Analysis, Kepner-Tregoe Matrix) – This technique provides a good compromise between insight and analysis using a methodological framework that evaluates alternatives to a defined set of criteria for success with risk combinations. This technique was developed by Dr. Charles H. Kepner and Dr. Benjamin B. Was made by Trego. It was published in 1965 as a “reasonable manager” and became a fundamental task for business decision-making.

Linear Programming (LP) – Usually used to optimize limited resources, linear programming is a mathematical technique where the requirements are represented by linear equations. Useful problems in operation research can be addressed using this technique.

Conjoint analysis (same or related strategies: stated choice analysis, choice modeling, discrete choice) – A statistical technique used in market research, conjoint analysis is used to estimate the psychological tradeoff for the characteristics and/or characteristics of the products and services made by the consumer. This can be helpful in predicting consumer acceptance and determining market positioning.

Affinity Diagrams (Same or Related Strategy: KJ Method) – Using this technique overloads address information by organizing many ideas and huge amounts of information. This technique is commonly used as part of a brainstorming exercise.

Composite Comparison Analysis – Options are compared with each other to establish relative importance. One drawback to this approach is that little or no information is released that identifies the criteria that support each option.

General AHP Hierarchy Analytic Hierarchical Hierarchical Process (AHP) – This is an extended multiple criterion techniques that uses combined comparisons with additional mathematics to help understand an underlying decision technique and its inherent in human decision strategy. AHP was originally published in 1970 by Dr. Thomas Sati. This strategy is usually applied to complex group decisions.

Simple Impact Diagram Influence Diagram (ID) – The decision network in our model is a form of effect diagram where the effects are represented graphically for the decision. Impact drawing provides an alternative to decision trees that grow exponentially with more variables.

decision making techniques and tools

Marginal Analysis

This technique is used to decide what the additional output will be if more variable (e.g. raw material, machine, and worker) is added. In the book ‘Economics’, Paul Samuelson defines limiting analysis, as the additional output to which an input variable adds an additional unit and other factors are held constant.

Margin analysis is particularly useful for alternative evaluation of the decision-making process. This is one of the important decision-making techniques and tools people use in organizations and in their personal life.

Game Theory

For complex strategic decisions where it is useful to consider the potential responses of external participants (e.g. customers, competitors, governments), game theory offers potentially valuable decision-making strategies. Game theory approaches can be considered an extension of impact drawing. This is one of the most significant constraints that are among the simplistic assumptions needed to minimize the problem of solvable play.
Multiple voting – This strategy is used to decide the party to choose roughly among the many options. It is best used to exclude lower-priority options before using a more rigorous strategy to finalize a decision on a smaller number of options.

Ratio Analysis

It is an accounting tool for interpreting accounting information. Ratio defines the relationship between the two variables. Basic financial ratios compare costs and revenue for a given period. The purpose of conducting a ratio analysis is to explain a firm’s strengths and weaknesses, as well as financial statements to determine its historical performance and current financial status.

Operations Research Strategy

Operational research is one of the most important sets of tools available to decision-makers. An operation study (OR) involves the practical application of a quantitative approach to the decision-making process. When using these techniques, one uses scientific, logical, or mathematical means to achieve a realistic solution to decision-making problems. Several techniques have been developed over the years.

Tree Decision Making Triple Decision Tree

This strategy helps to visualize the problem of multinational decision-making while addressing uncertain outcomes. This can be useful in deciding between restrictive resource strategies or investment opportunities.

Linear Programming

Linear programs are a quantitative technique used in decision-making. This is to make the best allocation of scarce or limited resources to an organization to achieve a specific purpose. The term ‘linear’ implies that the relationship between the various variables is proportional.

The term ‘programming’ means that a specific mathematical model is created to optimize the outputs when resources are scarce. To apply this strategy, two or more activities must be involved in competing for a situation-limited organization, and all relationships in the situation must be linear.

Some areas of managerial decision-making where render programming techniques can be applied:

Product mix decisions

Determine the Optimal Scale of Operation

III. Inventory Management Problems

2. Allocation of small resources under uncertain demand conditions

v. Determine production facilities and maintenance.

Waiting for Line Procedure

It is an activity research method that uses mathematical techniques to provide and provide waiting lines. Waiting line (or queuing) when the demand for the service exceeds the benefit of the service.

Since the perfect balance between demand and supply cannot be achieved, customers have to wait for service (excess demand) or have no customers to serve the company (excess supply).

When the lines are long and customers have to wait a long time, they can become frustrated. This firm may cost its customers. On the other hand, it is not possible to properly maintain the company to provide solid service from the time the company carries out disabled service benefits.

So, firm, there’s a balance to strike between the two. The queuing strategy helps to optimize customer service on a quantitative standard basis. However, it only provides important information for decision-making and does not solve the problem by itself. Developing queuing models often requires advanced mathematical and statistical knowledge.

Pro / Con (same or related strategies: Plus / Minus / Attractive (PMI), Pro / Con / Fix (PCF), Weighted Pro / Con, T-Chart, Force Field Analysis)

This viewing age is the pros and cons of the two options). . A key limitation is that this decision-making strategy is to look at only two options at a time.

Tool & techniques decision making process

Financial Analysis

This decision-making tool is calculated to estimate the profit of an investment, the payback period (period taken for the principal cost of investing for cash benefits), and to analyze cash flows and cash flows.

Investment options can be evaluated by discounting cash flows and cash outflows (the discount is the process of determining the present value of future amounts, considering that the decision-maker has the opportunity to earn a fixed return on his or her money).

Break-even analysis

This tool enables the decision-maker to evaluate the available options based on cost per unit, fixed costs, and variable costs. Break-in analysis is a measure by which the level of sales needed to cover all fixed costs can be determined.

Using this technique, the decision-maker can determine the segmentation-even point for the whole or any of its products. Even at the break, the total revenue equals the total cost, and the profit is taken.

Cost/benefit analysis

It can provide information for evaluating financial criteria, limited to financial decisions or other decision-making strategies.

Net Present Value (NPV) and Current Value (PV) – Net current value and current value calculations are often used for capital budgeting and investment decisions. NPV is sometimes considered a single-criteria decision strategy.

Trials and Errors

Crumpled Paper Trials and Errors next to the Basket Paper – This method of learning has been made available on the basis of decision making from our childhood. The main limitation is that the consequences of decision failure should be small, and appropriate reflection must be followed by trial and error to identify the correct cause/effect relationship after the trial.

Well-structured approach

This is the wrong decision-making method when starting with a model refined with experimental and ongoing testing. Because they are not accurate, use heuristics to reduce options or save time when approximations are acceptable.

Scientific Methods

Usually used to explore scientific questions, this troubleshooting technique can also be used to make decisions. When experiments are used to confirm or refine a hypothesis, this technique can be considered as a heuristic method.

Game Theory

It is a systematic and sophisticated strategy that enables competitors to select the appropriate strategies to achieve the goal. Game theory provides many useful insights into the situations involved in the competition. This decision-making strategy involves choosing the best strategy, considering your own actions and your competitors.

The primary purpose of game theory is to develop reasonable criteria for selecting a strategy. It is based on the assumption that every player (opponent) in the game (decision situation) is perfectly reasonable and wants to win the game.

In other words, the theory assumes that the adversary will carefully consider what he or she can do before making a decision and choosing its own strategy. The two concepts used in the theory of minimizing maximum damage and minimizing maximum gain (maximin) are game theory.

How Decisions Are Made


This technique creates a model that represents a real or existing system. Simulation is useful for solving complex techniques that cannot be easily solved by other techniques. In recent years, computers have been widely used for simulation. Various variables and their interrelationships are put into the model.

When the model is programmed through the computer, a set of outputs is obtained. Simulation techniques are useful in evaluating different options and selecting the best one. Simulation can be used to develop pricing strategies, distribution strategies, resource allocation, supply, etc.

Decision Trees

This is an interesting technique used for decision analysis. A decision tree is a sophisticated mathematical tool that enables the decision-maker to consider various alternative courses of action and select the best option. A decision tree is a graphical representation of the alternative course of action and the potential consequences and risks associated with each action.

In this way, the decision-maker identifies the best path through the tree. In the tree diagram, the base is known as the ‘decision point’ is represented by a square. Two or more opportunity events follow from the decision point. An opportunity event is represented by a circle and the decision tree forms a branch. Each opportunity event produces two or more potential outcomes leading to the next decision point.

The decision tree can be illustrated with an example. If a company expects to increase demand for its products, it may consider two alternative courses of action to address increased demand:

(A) installing new machines,

(B) Introduction to a double shift.

The decision tree allows the decision-maker to see the application of most steps in the decision-making process within a single image. The effectiveness of this decision-making strategy depends on the assumptions and potential assumptions made by the decision-maker.

Take away

Multi-scale decision analysis supports the best decision-making model and can be used for most decisions at any cost. Because of its basic simplicity, easy to application to all types of decisions and all decision-making methods, we have found that it is easy to increase or decrease complexity in conjunction with decision-making. This technique makes it easy to capture knowledge from a decision, and similar or similar decisions make it reusable for others.

Hope, this article on decision-making techniques and tools was found useful to you.

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