Transactional Theory – What does it Mean to be Transactional Leader?

(Last Updated On: August 22, 2019)

Teaching with transactional theory begins with reading aloud to teachers and modeling for their students as skilled readers begin to study. Printed words are important when it comes to understanding, but the knowledge and experiences that the reader brings to the process of making money from the text. In the 1970s, education researcher Louise Rosenblatt revolutionized reading theory with that theory. Rosenblatt believed that the transaction between the reader and the written word was understood as a result. To apply transaction theory, students should show students how to use what they read and how they know what to make.

Louise Rosenblatt's theory

Louise Rosenblatt’s transactional theory

Read aloud

By reading from the listening teachers and thinking aloud, students can learn how much money the readers make from the lesson. Students learn to understand comprehension as a form of problem solving. They help the teacher work through the syllabus in the syllabus, to explain the confusing passages, to make figures based on the formula of the text, and to make predictions about what will happen next. Later, through guided practice, the teacher helps students work by solving similar problems to understand other lessons.

Applicable to transactional theory, literary criticism, and the teaching of literature, the reader offers a “mutual, mutually defined relationship” between literature and text (Rosenblatt, 1986). Rosenblatt argues that the term “interaction” refers to an image of individual objects facing each other but not necessarily unchanged, such as billiard balls moving around each other and thus insufficient and misleading labels to exchange interactions between reader and text. That exchange – a transaction – is more accurately characterized by Annie Dillard’s metaphor. He writes, “The mind adapts to the earth and shape it as a river and shapes its own banks” (1982). Transactional theory suggests that the relationship between the reader and the text is similar to the relationship between the river and its banks, each contributing to its effect on each other, each poem’s form.

Text and post

The teacher applying the theory of transaction does not match any literary experience with the source from which it originates. Rosenlab argues for a rethinking of the terms, which is inaccurate in speaking of writing as “poetry” (which would serve as a general term for any literary work). The text paper is simple ink until the reader comes along. “Poetry,” on the other hand, is when the reader is brought into the mind of the reader and begins the symbolic, stimulating work on word transactions, images, emotions and ideas. That symbolic work can only happen in the reader’s mind. This is not done on the page, in the text, but in the work of reading. As Wolfgang Esher (1978) describes, “literary texts actually begin to ‘finance performance rather than formulate themselves.’ In the absence of the reader, the text is simply printed – it is not a poem until the reading is done.

Transactional theory thus places a great deal of emphasis on the role of the reader. If the text is not in the text but rather in the reader’s lawmaking, then it is necessary to consider the mind of the individual reader or group of readers for literature discussion. That’s all we need

“… to see the act of reading as an event involving a particular person and a particular text, occurring at certain times, in particular circumstances, in a particular social and cultural setting, and as part of the individual’s ongoing life and group” (Rosenblatt, 1985).

As such an idea proves the significance of a unique reader, that the text should not be read or carefully read, a pure reading that is obsolete by the reader’s uniqueness, should not attempt to suppress a personal and unreasonable search. The personality of the defendant in the transactional theory should be respected and considered; That the reader initially understands only one work on the basis of prior experience. Other texts, seeing it in the light of other texts, they cannot interpret any text. The reader’s background, feelings, memories and associations are called upon by reading, not only relevant, it is the basis on which the burden of a text is created. And so the theory of transaction invites the reader to reflect on any text he brings, and to acknowledge and examine his responses.

Uses background knowledge

For an understanding reading transaction, readers must provide something for the process. Authors provide words, but readers bring their own experiences, which they use to interpret the text. For example, many readers have their own idea of ​​what a hotel lobby looks like, what it looks like on an airplane, and what scene or place a writer can portray. Sometimes, the emotional image of the reader can be recognized in the author’s own narrative. Before students read a lesson, teachers can help students access their prior knowledge by discussing elements in the story, including problems and setting, so that students can use that information to understand the texts.

Make connections

Readers work through a passage, they look for other books, places they resemble each other in their own experience, and events they have seen in the real world. They are used to understand the part of the transaction readers by connecting what they know to what they read, especially when the material is difficult. In keeping with this theory, teachers must show students how to create text-to-text, text-to-self and text-to-world connections through modeling and guided practice. They may want students to write in journals about their connections. Theoretically, the writing process helps students explain their connections and use them to improve their understanding.

Transactional Theory in picture

Transactional Theory in picture

Ask questions

Communication is a key to most people’s transactions, but it is difficult to communicate with a book that really can’t speak. Nevertheless, asking questions and searching for answers to the text is part of the transactional lesson. As students read, they should ask themselves, “What’s going on here?” And “Why is this important?” An active and transactional process for searching for spontaneous and textual answers is to read. Teachers can assist students with this by asking students to brainstorm lists of questions before, during and after reading. The class can use questions and answers to discuss reading later.

Related: What is Paternalistic Leadership and how it is importance?

Stable and selective – professional and spiritual

Transactional theory draws attention, in other words, to readers, what they bring to the text, the expectations of the texts, and the choices they make. Location choice may be the most important. Rosenblatt distinguishes between discursive attitudes, in which the reader is primarily concerned with the information from the text, and the aesthetic attitude in which the reader primarily focuses on the experience during the lesson.

It is worthwhile to ask for more stance information. It is a position taken by the amateur mechanic intent on learning from the brain, how to repair a carburetor. The mechanic reads out the information needed to perform a specific task. The rhythms and words of the language are less of interest than the accuracy and simplicity of the language. Prose is glorious, so much the better, but the primary concern is the work at hand. The audience is also in the mood of trying to judge the demands and promises of political candidates. In their dealings with such a curriculum, they do not want to be influenced by the morals of prose, but they must be careful against the possibility that the joy of the language, its engaging rhythms and vivid images may be blurred. Errors in logic, inadequacy of evidence, and other factors that are important in analyzing messages.

On the other hand, the aesthetic attitude is that of the reader who does not come into the text in the frame of a particular indicator, not performing certain information or specific tasks, but rather looking for a complete emotional, aesthetic and intellectual experience. Given by the lesson. The reader who takes such a stand not only comes to the content – providing information, stories or reasoning – but also echoes emotions, associations and memories are stimulated, the flow of images transmitted through the mind while studying. In other words, such a lesson is not taken as preparation for any other experience – fixing a car or voting – but as an experience.

What station the reader takes – or more precisely, where the reader stands on the spectrum described by aesthetic and neutral – determines how “literary” the experience of a particular lesson will be. Although the text may contain solid clues that hold the right perspective (such as a poem, lines and stanzas with its explicit arrangement and its own set of features as a valid document), the reader can approach it as an information source – individually – poetic experience. As a source – aesthetically. For example, some texts from Annie Dillard, Jacques Cousteau, James Michener and Louise Thomas – both inviting lessons from either or both studies. It is the reader who must set the constancy, select for some specific reading focus instead of others, and it is the teacher’s job to make students aware of the possibilities.

Applicable to education

Transaction theory literature teachers offer different ideas and principles. This suggests that the poem is in the reader’s work rather than the reader. Poetry – any literary work – is thus changing, changing, different for each reader, and different for one reader to read next. Therefore, teachers do not carefully conduct classes with direct conclusions, informed by critical authority over literary works. Instead, they face the difficult but interesting task of recognizing the reader’s uniqueness and each text, recognizing the differences, and drafting important discussions and writing of that material.

Initial response is considered. Students are honored and encouraged to examine their reactions – emotions, associations, memories, pictures, ideas. Within those elements they will build their understanding of the text. Teaching guided by this theory encourages students to examine responses, encourage them to examine their sources in texts and other experiences, reflect on them and analyze them in light of other curricula – other students and critics – and other information about literature.

Cloudroom atmosphere is cooperative. If students can deal with these issues, many of which will be personal, the literary classroom must be collaborative rather than cohesive. Debate – where one wins and one loses, one right and the other wrong – is not a fitting model for much of the literature’s discussion. The discussion should encourage students not to win but to clarify and refine. Students are encouraged to enter into a “reciprocal, mutually defining relationship” in their discussions with students and teachers, as well as in their curriculum.

Literature is expanding the concept of knowledge. Such reflection and discussion results, students’ discussions with self, text, and others, which may make more sense. Although the ability to intelligently read, observe writing features, make critical decisions about authors, texts and genres, and all other goals that are prevalent in the literary classroom, transaction theory also suggests that literature may be limited to sharpen our understanding of ourselves and our society:

Other literature research relationships. Transaction theory does not deny the validity of other approaches in the literature. Historical, biographical, and cultural perspectives can all gain insight into the literature. But the theory is the basic literary experience a reader encounters with a reader, a unique personality.

Instructions PrincipLE

The principles of instruction contained in the theory of transaction may be:

Invite feedback. Make it clear that students are valid starting points for their feedback, emotional and intellectual, discussion and writing.

Give the idea crystal time. Before others respond, encourage students to reflect on their feedback.

Find the point of contact between students. Help them see the potential of communication between their different points of view.

Open the discussion on topics of self, lessons, and others. Literary experience should be an opportunity to learn about three.

Let’s talk. Students should feel free to change their minds, seeking insight instead of victory.

Look back at other texts, other discussions, other experiences. Students should connect reading with other experiences.

Look for the next step. What can they read next? Can they write?

Transactional Leadership Theory

Transactional Leadership Theory

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